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Scientific and practical justification


Method TES therapy (transcranial electrical stimulation of protective mechanisms of the brain) was developed about 20 years ago in the Institute of physiology. I. P. Pavlov of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg) by a group of scientists under the leadership of doctor of medical Sciences, Professor, academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences and Academy of medical and technical Sciences, laureate of the State. prize of the USSR V. P. Lebedev with the application of the principles of evidence-based medicine.

The current method of TES therapy is a generally accepted technique of physiotherapy.

Method TES-therapy is based on the experimentally observed phenomenon of selectivity transcranial electrical effects on the defense system of the human brain and animals that are registered as scientific discoveries of the International Association of authors of scientific discoveries and inventions.

Methods of therapeutic use of TES therapy and sells it equipment is protected by certificates of the USSR and patents for inventions.

It should be emphasized that the effects of TES-therapy had the following distinctive features:

  • Manifest as a complex and at the same time
  • Have a homeostatic purpose
  • Are multicomponent system character

Below is an overview, which is essentially a distillation of what you can say about TPP method from a scientific point of view. Development and validation of therapeutic use of transcranial electrical stimulation of protective mechanisms of the brain using the principles of evidence-based medicine (the results of twenty years of study)

MD, Professor, academician, laureate of State. prize of the USSR Lebedev, Valery Center transcranial electrostimulation of the Institute of physiology n. a. I. P. Pavlov of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

SUMMARY


The review presents a description of the stages of experimental studies in the development of the method of selective non-invasive transcranial electrostimulation (TES) of the protective mechanisms of the brain, including the sequence of setting goals and ways of their solution. First identified quasi-resonant properties of the protective mechanisms of the brain, and the selectivity of their activation developed regime of electrical stimulation has been proven through modern immunocytochemical, radioimmunohimicheskoe, autoradiographic methods, as well as nuclear-magnetic-rezonansnoi tomography. Main areas of clinical application of TPP justified a preliminary study of the effects of this influence on the experimental pathological models. Discusses the results of the application of TES in different fields of medicine: neuropathology, anesthesiology, emergency medicine, combustiology, addiction, primary care, gastroenterology, otorhinolaryngology, obstetrics and gynecology, dermatology. Presents the basic principles of the apparatus performing the method of the TPP, and the ways of its improvement. Reproducibility of experimental and clinical data based on continuous compliance with the studies of the principles of evidence-based medicine. Based on the comparison of the results of the study of the optimal modes of TPP and the results of studying the effects of light flashes suggests that quasi-resonant properties of the protective mechanisms of the brain may be a reflection of a more General fundamental resonance properties of the entire brain.

1. Definition and terminology
Under transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) we understand a non-invasive electro-stimulation selectively activates antinociceptive system of the brain in subcortical structures, which is mainly carried out with the participation of such neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, as endorphins and serotonin.

2. Evidence-based medicine as the basis of developing a method and apparatus for transcranial electrical stimulation of protective mechanisms of the brain
This development and its introduction into clinical practice, in contrast to the previously described methods of transcranial electrostimulation (electronicos, electric, electroanalgesia) has been performed using internationally acknowledged rules of evidence-based medicine – the principles of GLP (good laboratory practice), GCP (good clinical practice) and GSP (good statistical practice). It should be emphasized that the rules of GLP is designed to examine the efficacy of pharmacological agents. It was therefore necessary to articulate them in relation to the development of non-pharmacological method of exposure using a physical factor.

3. Setting targets for the experimental development of the method of transcranial electrical stimulation of protective mechanisms of the brain
Naturally, our research in developing a method of transcranial electrostimulation protective (anti-nociceptive) mechanisms of the brain, which began in 1981, were constructed on the basis of a fundamentally new data on the structural-functional and neurochemical organization of the brain, obtained in the 70-ies of XX century.

4. The decision of tasks on the experimental development of the method of transcranial electrical stimulation of protective mechanisms of the brain
4.1. Determining how current in the brain to determine the optimal position of the electrodes.

4.2 Selection of optimal parameters current transcranial electrical stimulation of protective mechanisms of the brain.

4.3. Proof of selective activating effects of transcranial electrostimulation on endorphinergic and serotonergic structure of the protective mechanisms of the brain.

4.4. Conclusion according to the results of experimental development of the method of transcranial
electrical stimulation of protective mechanisms of the brain.

5. General description of the areas of experimental and clinical research
Shows the main types of effects of transcranial electrical stimulation of protective mechanisms of the brain. It is proved that all these effects are associated with Central or peripheral action of endorphins.

6. A list of the main institutions, which was carried out experimental and clinical studies of TPP
All the following data were obtained in a joint research following scientific and practical institutions

7. Experimental and clinical substantiation of the basic directions of therapeutic use of transcranial electrical stimulation of protective mechanisms of the brain
7.1. Normalization of psychophysiological status

7.2.Anti-alcohol and anti-drug action

7.3. The analgesic effect

7.4. Normalization of vascular regulation

7.5. Stimulation of reparative regeneration

7.6. Immunotropic effects

7.7. Growth inhibition of tumors

7.8. Systemic therapeutic effects of TES-therapy

8. Contraindications to the use of TES therapy

TES-therapy has a limited range of contraindications:

  • Convulsive state, epilepsy;
    • Acute injury and brain tumors;
      • Hydrocephalus;
        • Hypertensive crisis;
          • Acute mental disorder;
            • Thyrotoxicosis;
              • Damage to the skin in the places of electrodes;
                • The presence of implanted stimulators.
                  • The age of 5 years.

9. Apparatus for transcranial electrostimulation – trends of perfection
The basis for the development of the instrument was based on the identified characteristics of the protective mechanisms of the brain, considered as a biophysical object, as well as the standards of safety and ergonomics. The effect method and device for its implementation are protected by patents of the Russian Federation. Based on the fact that TES-therapy can be used both in medical institutions and outside them, for example, at home, was developed by the range of devices APPARATUS differing exposure rates and a set of service functions.

10. Quasi-resonant characteristics of the protective mechanisms of the brain as a possible reflection of the fundamental properties of the brain
This question seemed completely obvious, nevertheless, a pilot study in this direction was taken. Screening was conducted, randomized, blinded study of rhythmic photostimulation with different characteristics to the symptoms of fatigue and associated subjective indicators of psychophysiological state volunteers, as it has been shown that TES has a positive impact on these indicators.

11. Overall conclusion – the value of the development and implementation of TES therapy
Development and implementation of the method of transcranial electrical stimulation of protective mechanisms of the brain is a complex of works performed on the most modern scientific and technical level, culminating in the emergence of a new method of treatment – TES-therapy, which has the following advantages:

Development and implementation of the method of transcranial electrical stimulation of protective mechanisms of the brain is a complex of works performed on the most modern scientific and technical level, culminating in the advent of a new method of treatment – TES therapy, which has the following advantages:
TES-therapy is a highly effective physiotherapy treatment method, developed on the basis of consistent application of the principles of evidence-based medicine.
TES-therapy has a homeostatic purpose and its effects are complex and systemically in relation only to the disturbed functions. TES-therapy has a wide range of indications for therapeutic application in various fields of medicine, the main directions of which previously been investigated in experimental pathological models.
TES-therapy has a limited range of contraindications and has no toxic and allergic side effects.
Apparatus for TES therapy is widely available, commercially available in the form of several models adapted to different application conditions. Their use is simple and does not require special training of medical personnel and facilities to install them.